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第十四章 宾语从句  

2011-12-02 19:34:25|  分类: 芝麻开门 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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初中英语分类练习

——语从句

复习目标:1、掌握引导宾语从句的各种连词

2、掌握宾语从句的语序——主句+连接词+主语+谓语

3、掌握宾语从句,主句与从句在时态上的呼应。

重点:语序和时态呼应

难点:语序和时态呼应;疑问词+不定式的转化;状语从句的辨析

  1. 宾语从句的连接词:
    1. 连词that,只起连接作用,在从句中不作句子成分,也无词汇意义,在口语中常被省略。

    eg. He knew (that) he should work hard.

    1. 连词if 、whether,它们起连接作用,在从句中不作句子成分,作"是否"解,在口语中多用if。

    eg. Tom don't know if/whether his grandpa liked the present.

    He asked me whether or not I was coming.

    一般情况下,if 和whether可以互换,但以下3种情况只能用whether:

    ①在不定式前:Whether to go there or not hasn't been decided.

    ②在介词前:It depends on(依靠) whether it is going to rain.

    ③与or not连用:They are talking about whether to go there or not.

    1. 连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which,连接副词when, where, why, how, 它们起连接作用,作句子成分,各有自己的意义。

    eg. The teacher asked the new students which class he was in.

    I wonder where he got so much money.

    【注意】1、由连接代、副词引导的宾语从句可以和"疑问词+不定式"结构转化。

    eg. I don't know how I should do with the presents. è I don't know how to do with the presents.

    2、要注意区分判断由if、when引导的从句类型.

  2. 宾语从句的语序:

宾语从句的语序是陈述语序,即"连接词+主语+谓语+其它成分"。特别强调:它的主语和谓语的语序是陈述语序,而不是疑问句的倒装结构。

Can you tell me who(m) do we have to see?()

Can you tell me who(m) we have to see?()

The teacher asked the students what they were doing.(思考: what在从句中的成分)

陈述句变为宾语从句时,要注意人称和时态的变化,语序不变 eg. She said, "I will leave a message on the desk." à She said she would leave a message on the desk.

一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为宾语从句时,也要注意人称和时态的变化,后面接陈述语序Eg. "Where are the tickets?" I asked him. à I asked him where the tickets are.

 

  1. 宾语从句的时态呼应:

宾语从句中谓语动词的时态,常常受到主句谓语时态的制约,此为时态呼应。如果主句谓语是一般现在时或将来时,从句谓语的时态不受限制;如果主句谓语的时态是一般过去时,从句一般要随着改为相应的过去时态(一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时、过去完成时)。

eg. I thought (that) you are free today. ()

I thought (that) you would be free today. ()

【注意】当宾语从句叙述的是客观真理时,不管主句谓语的时态如何,从句都用一般现在时。

eg. The teacher told us (that) the earth moves around the sun.

  1. 其他需要说明的问题:
    1. 标点由主句决定,如主句是陈述句、祈使句,则用句号;是疑问句则用问号。

eg. I heard she had been to the Great Wall. Can you tell me which bus I should take?

  1. 要注意个别句子中主从句人称的一致。

五、 宾语从句和状语从句的区分:

eg. 1) I will go out tomorrow if it is fine.

2) I don't know if the train has arrived.

句1中if引导的是状语从句。这个从句表示"条件",修饰主句。整个句子的意思是如果明天天气好,我就出去。句2中if引导的是宾语从句,充当谓语动词don't know的宾语。整个句子的意思是我不知道火车是否到达。

判断方法:

  1. 可以从整个句式看。状语从句一般可以放在主句的前面或后面(个别除外),宾语从句只能放在主句谓语动词之后。
  2. 从引导词看。if充当宾语从句的连接词时,相当于whether, 词义为"是否",充当状语从句的连接词时,词义为"如果"。when充当宾语从句的连接词时,意为"什么时候",充当状语从句的连接词时,意为"当……的时候"。
  3. 从时态看。if和when作连接词时,引导宾语从句要注意:从句的谓语动词的时态应根据主句的时态作相应的变化。if和when充当从属连词时,引导条件和时间状语从句,若主句的谓语动词用一般将来时,则从句的时态应用一般现在时表示将来。

实战演练

一、例题选讲

例1

I don't know ________ he will come or not. 

 

A.

how

B.

whether

C.

weather

D.

when

答案:

提示:

在宾语从句中出现了or not,这里只能用whether。

第二题答案为B,根据题意问他们何时回来,所以要用when。

例2

Can you tell me ________they will come back? 

 

A.

where

B.

when

C.

which

D.

who 

答案:

提示:

根据题意问他们何时回来,所以要用when。

例3

Have you seen the doctor? He asked me. (两句并一句)

 

答案:

He asked me if / whether I had seen a doctor

提示:

是一般疑问句,连接词应为if / whether

例4

How can we get to the science museum? Could you tell us?(两句并一句)

 

答案:

Could you tell me how we can get to the science museum?

提示:

特殊疑问句,连接词就是它本身的特殊疑问词how,将情态动词can放在主语me之后,时态运用取决于主句。主句could you tell me是委婉语气,是一般现在时,所以从句是什么时态就用什么时态。

 

直接引语变间接引语

一、如何变人称:
直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化如:
She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her.

"直接引语变间接引语时,若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称。或被第二人你所修饰。从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语。也可以用第一人称,如:
He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then

"直接引语变间接引语时。如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰从句中的人称一般不需要变化如:
Mr Smith said
"Jack is a good worker"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker

二、如何变时态:
直接引语在改为间接引语时、时态需要做相应的调整。如果主句谓语动词为现在范畴的时态或一般将来时,则间接引语中的动词仍保持直接引语原来时态。如果主句谓语动词为过去时,间接引语中的动词时态按下列变化:
1 一般现在时变为一般过去时
2 现在进行时变为过去进行时
3 一般将来时变为过去将来时
4 现在完成时变为过去完成时
5 一般过去时变为过去完成时
6 过去完成时不变,仍为过去完成时
要注意在以下几种情况:

1 如果直接引语是表示客观真理时,变为间接引语,一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如:
The teacher said "The earth goes round the sun."
→The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.
2)直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。如:
He said to me, "I was born in 1973."
→He told me that he was born in 1973.

(3)如果直接引语所述事实在当时和目前同样生效,变为间接宾语时,一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如:
He said, "I'm a boy, not a girl."
→He said that he is a boy ,not a girl.

(4) 直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语时,时态不变。如:
The girl said, "I get up at six every morning."
→The girl said that she gets up at six every morning.

(5)如果直接引语中含有since, when, while 引导的表示过去时间的状语从句,在变为间接引语时,只改变主句中的谓语动词,从句的一般过去时则不变。如:
He said to me, "I have taught English since he came here ."
→He told me that he had taught English since he came here.

(6)如果直接引语中含有情态动词 must, need, had better以及情态动词的过去式could, might, should, would,在变为间接引语时,这些情态动词没有时态的改变。例如:
The teacher said to me . "You must pay more attention to your pronunciation."
→The teacher told me that I must (have to ) pay more attention to my pronunciation.
He said , "I could swim when I was only six ."
→He said that he could swim when he was only six.

(7) 直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。如:
Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street

三、如何变状语:
直接引语变间接引语,状语变化有其内在规津,时间状语由"现在"改为"原来"(例:now变为then, yesterday。变为 the day before)地点状语,尤其表示方向性的,或用指示代词修饰的状语,由""改为""(例:this 改为that),如:
He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his.

四.如何变句型:
直接引语如果是陈述句,间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。如:She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.

直接引语如果是反意疑问句,选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改为由whetherif引导的宾语从句.如:He said, "Can you swim, John?" →He asked John if he could swim.
"You have finished the homework, haven't you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework.
"Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" →He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.

直接引语如果是特殊问句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句(宾语从句必须用陈述句语序)。
She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→ She asked me when they had their dinner.

直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为"tell(ask, order, beg) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如:
"Don't make any noise," she said to the children. →She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.

直接引语如果是以"Let's"开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用"suggest +动句词(或从句)。"如:
He said, "Let's go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.
He suggested that they should go to see the film.

引述别人的话有两种方式:一是使用引号引出人家的原话,这叫做直接引语;一是用自己的话把人家的话转述出来,这叫做间接引语。例如:
John said, "I'm going to London with my father."
约翰说:"我要和父亲到伦敦去。"(引号内是直接引语)
John said that he was going to London with his father.
约翰说,他要和他父亲去伦敦。(宾语从句是间接引语)
五、由直接引语变为间接引语的几种情况:

1
直接引语是陈述句时
间接引语为that引导的宾语从句(口语中that可以省略),主句的引述动词主要有say ,tell, repeat, explain, think等。
He said , "You are younger than I."-'He said (that ) I was younger than him.

2.直接引语是疑问句时
间接引语为陈述语序:主句的谓语动词say 改为ask,或改为wonder, do not know, want to know, be not sure, be puzzled等。
1 一般疑问句或反意疑问句变为if (whether)引导的宾语从句。
She said, "Do you often come here to read newspapers?"
→She asked me if (
whether)I often went there to read newspapers.
She asked me , "You have seen the film, haven't you?"
→She asked me whether(
if )I had seen the film.

2 选择疑问句变为whether….or 宾语从句。
I asked him, "Will you stay at home or go to a film tonight?"
→I asked him whether he would stay at home or go to a film that night.

(3)特殊疑问句变为由原来的疑问词引导的宾语从句。
He asked , "Where do you live?"
→He asked me where I lived.

3.直接引语是祈使句时
间接引语为不定式,作ask , tell, beg, order, warn, advise等动词的宾语补足语(don't 变为not .
The teacher said to the boy, "Open the window."→The teacher told the boy to open the window.
His father said to him , "Don't leave the door open."→His father told him not to leave the door open.
[
注意]
1 有些表示建议、提议、劝告或要求的祈使句,可以用suggest ,insist等动词 加以转述。例如:
He said, "Let's go to the theatre."
→He suggested (our )going to the theatre.
He suggested that we(should) go to the theatre.
(2) "Would you mind opening the window?" he asked.
→He asked me to open the window.
"Why don't you take a walk after supper?" he asked .
→he advised me to take a walk after supper.
"Shall we listen to the music?" he asked.
→He suggested listening to the music.

4.直接引语是感叹句时
间接引语为what how 引导,也可以用that 引导。
She said, "What a lovely day it is !"
→She said what a lovely day it was .
She said that it was a lovely day.
5.
代词等一般地应作用相应的变化,变化方法见下表。

  

在直接引语中

在间接引语中

指示代词

this

that

these

those

表示时间的词

now

then

today

that day

this week(month ,etc)

that week (month ,etc)

yesterday

the day before

last week(month ,etc)

the week(month ,etc) before

three days (a year ,etc) ago

three days (a year. etc) before

tomorrow

the next (following ) day

next week (month ,etc)

the next (following ) week (month ,etc)

表地点的词

here

there

动词

bring

take

come

go

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