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第九章 动词时态  

2011-12-02 19:30:32|  分类: 芝麻开门 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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初中英语分类练习

——动词部分

【复习目标】

▲弄清动词的时态,掌握常用的八种时态。 

【课前准备】

●在分类记忆动词的基础上,复习八种时态。 

【知识要点】

英语动词有十六种时态,但初中阶段常用的有八种,即:一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成时、一般将来时、一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时和过去完成时。

一般现在时

(一)一般现在时的形式

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

(二)一般现在时的用法

  1. 永恒的真理

    一般现在时可以用于陈述永恒的真理

    Summer follows spring.

  2. "现在时段"

    一般现在时可以陈述现在时段内发生或存在的事件、动作或情况。这些事件、动作或情景说不定会无限期的延续下去。但实际上,我们的意思则是在说"这是现在存在着的状况"。

    My father works in a bank.

    My sister wears glasses.

  3. 习惯性的动作

    一般现在时可以带时间副词或不带时间副词表示习惯性动作,即不断重复发生的事。

    I get up at 7.

    John smokes a lot.

    使用带不定频度副词(如:always,never等)或带副词短语(如:every day等)的一半现在时可使习惯性动作表现得更加明确。

    I sometimes stay up till midnight.

    She visits her parents every day.

在以How often 开头的问句及答句中,通常用一般现在是:

How often do you go to the dentist? – I go every six months.

  1. 表示将来

    这种用法往往用于谈论时间表、节目单或日程表上所安排好的事情的时候:

    The exhibition opens on January 1st and closes on January 31st.

    The concert begins at 7.30 and ends at 9.30.

 

现在进行时

  1. 现在进行时的形式

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 现在进行时的用法
    1. 说话时正在进行的动作

      现在进行时表示说话时正在进行的动作或事件。往往与now, at the moment, just等副词连用,以示强调:

      Someone's knocking at the door. Can you answer it ?

      有人敲门,你去开一下好吗?

      What are you doing ? — I 'm just tying up my shoe-laces.

      你在干什么?——我在系鞋带。

      He's working at the moment ,so he can't come to the telephone.

      他现在在工作,所以不能来接电话。

      现在进行着的动作皆被视为未完成的动作:

      He 's talking to his girlfriend on the phone.

      他正在和他的女朋友通电话。

      可用still 一词强调动作的持续性

      He's still talking to his girlfriend on the phone.

      他仍在和他的女朋友通话。

    2. 暂时情况

现在进行时可用来表示不会长期发生的动作或情况,或被认为在短期内正在进行的动作或存在的状况。

What's your daughter doing these days ? — She's studying English at Durham University.

你女儿现在在干什么?—— 她在达勒姆大学学习英语。

这种情况不一定在说话时发生:

Don't take that ladder away. Your father's using it .

别把梯子拿起,你父亲在用哩。(即不一定现在在用。)

She's at her best when she's making big decisions.

当做出最大决定时,她处于最佳状态。

暂时发生的事情也可以是在说话时正在进行着:

The river is flowing very fast after last night's rain.

昨夜下过雨后,河水流速很快。

现在进行时也用来表示当前的动向:

People are becoming less tolerant of smoking these days .

如今人们对吸烟较为难以忍受了。

  1. 事先计划好的动作:指将来

现在进行时可表示为将来安排好的活动和事件;除在上下文中意思清楚者外,通常需要一个表示时间的状语:

We're spending next winter in Australia.

我们将要在澳大利亚度过明年冬天。

用arrive ,come, go ,leave 等动词的现在进行时描写行程安排,也通常有"将到达"和"将离去"的意思。

He's arriving tomorrow morning on the 13.27 train.

明天早上他将乘13时27分的火车到达。

用现在进行时表示说话时正在进行的动作时,可用状语和上下文使语义不致含混:

Look ! The train's leaving.

看!火车开了。(即火车实际上正在开动)

  1. 重复的动作

副词 always, constantly ,continually ,forever ,perpetually ,repeatedly 等等可与进行时连用,表示不断重复的动作:

She's always helping people .

他经常帮助别人。

某些状态动词带有always 等次也可用进行时:

I'm always hearing strange stories about him .

我常听说关于他的一些怪事。

当现在进行时表示某事发生的次数过多时,则有时含有抱怨的意思:

Our burglar alarm is forever going off for no reason.

我们的防盗警报器不知怎么常常失灵。

一般现在时和现在进行时的区别:

1 一般现在时和现在进行时常用来解说当时发生的事件,特别是在电台和电视广播中。在这种情况下,一般现在时常用来表示说话时刚完成的快速动作,现在进行时则常用来描述持续时间较长的动作:

MacFee passes to Franklyn, Franklyn makes a quick pass to Booth . Booth is away with the ball ,but he 's losing his advantage.

麦克菲把球传给富兰克林,富兰克林快传给布恩,布恩带球跑开,但他处境不利。

2 在师范和使用说明中使用一般现在时:

一般现在时的这种用法是祈使语气的另一种表示方式。它说明每一步应该怎样做:

First you boil some water .Then you warm the teapot .Then you add three teaspoons of tea .Next ,you pour on boiling water.

你先烧些开水,然后把茶壶烫热,接着放三勺茶叶,随后冲入开水…

3 内容简介用一般现在时:

Kate Fox's novel is an historical romance set in London in the 1880's. The action takes place over a period of 30 years …

凯特.福克斯的小说是一部以1880年的伦敦为背景的历史传奇。情节的跨度有30年…

4 报刊标题、图片文字说明等用一般现在时和现在进行时:

这种一般现在时通常以表示过去发生的事件:

FREAK SNOW STOPS TRAFFIC

反常的大雪使交通断绝

 

一般将来时

一般将来时由助动词shall/will加动词原形构成。shall(用于第一人称,will用于任何人称。表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,常与表示将来的时间连用。如:tomorrow, next week等。但在表示准备、计划、打算做某事时,常用be going to加动词原形的结构。

如:We're going to see Uncle Wang tomorrow.

1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。
will
在陈述句中用于各人称,在争求意见时常用于第二人称。
Which paragraph shall I read first

Will you be at home at seven this evening?
2) be going to +
不定式,表示将来。
a.
主语的意图,即将做某事。
What are you going to do tomorrow?
b.
计划,安排要发生的事。
The play is going to be produced next month

c.
有迹象要发生的事
Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.
3) be +
不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。
We are to discuss the report next Saturday.
4) be about to +
不定式,意为马上做某事。
He is about to leave for Beijing.
注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。

 

一般过去时

一般过去时由动词的过去式表示,表示过去发生的动作或状态。过去式分为规则变化和不规则变化。

一般过去时的构成:
a. be动词过去式的句式。否定句是在was/were后面加not,was not (wasn't)/were not (weren't)。一般疑问句是把was / were提前并放到句首,要求首字母要大写。
b.实义动词过去式的句式。
①肯定式:主语+动词过去式+其它。
如:They had a good time yesterday.
②否定式:主语+did not(didn't)+动词原形+其它。如:They didn't watch TV last night.
③一般疑问句:Did+主语+动词原形+其它?肯定回答:Yes,主语+did.否定回答:No,主语+didn't.
如:Did they have a meeting two days ago? Yes,they did. / No,they didn't.
④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+did+主语+动词原形+其它?如:What time did you finish your homework?

一般过去时的用法:
①一般过去时的基本用法
a)表示过去某个特定时间发生的动作或存在的状态。
He suddenly fell ill yesterday.
昨天他突然生病了。
The engine stopped because the fuel was used up.
发动机因燃料用光而停机了。

b)表示过去经常发生的动作或存在的状态。
I wrote home once a week at college.
我上大学时每周给家里写一封信。
He was already in the habit of reading widely in his boyhood.
他童年时就养成了广泛阅读的习惯。

注:表示过去的习惯性动作,除了用过去时外,还可以用used to或would来表示。
She used to study late into the night when she was in Senior Three.
她上高三时经常学习到深夜。
He would sit for hours doing nothing.
过去他常常一坐几个钟头什么事也不做。

c)表示过去连续发生的一系列动作。
She entered the room, picked up a magazine and looked through it carefully.
她走进房间,拿起一本杂志,认真地翻阅了起来。
The students go up early in the morning, did morning exercises and then read English aloud in the open air.
学生们很早起床,做早操,然后在室外朗读英语。

d)在时间、条件状语从句中表示过去将要发生的动作。
We would not leave until the teacher came back.
老师回来我们才会离开。
She told me she would not go if it rained the next day.
她告诉我如果第二天下雨的话,她就不去了。

②一般过去时的特殊用法
a)在虚拟语气中表示现在或将来时间的动作或状态。
It's time we went.
该是我们走的时候了。
I wish I were twenty years younger.
但愿我年轻20岁。
I would rather you didn't do anything for the time being.
我宁愿你暂时先不要采取什么措施。

b)在口语中,一般过去时往往显示委婉客气。
I wondered if you could give me a hand.
我想请你帮个忙。
Might I come and see you tonight?
我想今晚来看你,好吗? 
一般过去时的时间状语表示一般过去时的时间状语有:a moment ago(刚才)yesterday morninglast night/ weekthe day before yesterday(前天)just now(刚才)等。
动词一般过去式的构成
a.规则动词过去式的变化可速记为直、去、双、改四字诀。
一般情况下在动词原形后直接加-ed。如:wanted,played。
以不发音的字母e结尾的动词,去掉e再加-ed。如:hoped,lived。
重读闭音节单词需双写最后一个辅音字母再加-ed。如:stopped。
以辅音字母+y结尾的动词变y为i,再加-ed。如:studied,worried。
规则动词过去式的读音也有规律可循。请记住:清后[t],元浊[d],[t] [d]之后读[Id]。
清辅音[p] [k] [f] [s] [F] 等后,ed要读[t]。如:worked,finished。
元音或浊辅音[b] [g] [v] [z] [m]等后,ed要读[d]。如:lived,called。
[t]或[d]后,ed读[Id]。如:started,needed。
b.不规则动词变化,要逐一熟记。be动词过去式有两种形式,主语是第一、三人称单数形式使用was,其他人称用were。

注意事项:A) 注意时间状语的搭配。一般过去时的时间状语应该是表示过去某个时间的词或词组,如:yesterday, last month, in 1999, two days ago等,绝对不可与recently, in the past 10 years, this month等连用,因为这样的时间状语都与现在有关系,应该用现在完成时或一般现在时。

B) used to do的否定形式和疑问形式很特别:你怎么写都正确。以否定形式为例:used not to do, didn't used to do, didn't use to do都对。

Used to do经常与 be used to doing sth/ sth结构进行对比。前者表示"过去常常或

过去曾经",要求加动词原形;后者表示"习惯于",要求加名词或动名词。

现在完成时

表示到说话时刻为止已经做或尚未做过的动作。常用already, yet, so far, by now, since two days ago, for a few days 等词语作状语。

注:give, see, come, arrive, leave(离开),begin, start, finish, join, become, borrow, lend, die, end 等点时间动词可以用于完成时,但在肯定句中不能与表示一段时的 since和for 短语连用,因为点时间动词不能延续,而在否定句中可以与表示一段时间的for短语连用,因为否定的点时间动词可以看作是一种可延续的状态。

Mike has come for a year.( )

Mike has been here for a year( )

Mike hasn't come for a year.(√)

过去完成时

表示截止到过去某一时刻或在过去的动作之前(过去的过去)已经做或尚未做的动作。

By (=up to )last weekend we hadn't got any information.

When he appeared, we had waited for 30 minutes.

现在完成时考点

 考点一:考查基本概念

 例 Both his parents look sad . Maybe they ______what's happened to him .(呼和浩特)A. knew     B. have known C. must know D.will know

  简析:现在完成时主要强调过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响,或过去发生的动作还未结束,一直持续到现在或将来,重点在于对现在的影响。这种考查难度较大,往往无时间状语,需要从上下文分析、推理才行。故上两侧根据上下文分析、推理,正确答案是B。

考点二:考查时间状语

 例1. He has _______ been to Shanghai , has he ?

  A. already B.never C.ever D. still

 例2. Have you met Mr Li ______?

  A. just B. ago C.before D. a moment ago

 例3. The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year .

  A. is writing B.was writing C.wrote D.has written

 例4.—Our country ______ a lot so far .

   —Yes . I hope it will be even ______ .

  A. has changed ; well B. changed ; good

  C. has changed ; better D. changed ; better

 例5. Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years .

  A. was ; studying B. will ; study

  C. has ; studied D. are ; studying

 例6. We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl .

  A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew

 例7. Harry Potter is a very nice film .I_______ it twice .

  A. will see B. have seen C. saw D.see

  简析:现在完成时的时间状语常有如下四类:

  ⑴现在完成时常与already(已经),just(刚刚,正好),ever(曾经),never(从来,也不;从不),before(以前),yet(仍然)等连用。故例1应选B;例2应选C。

  ⑵现在完成时常与recently(近来),so far(到目前为止),in the past/"last + 一段时间"等时间状语连用。因为上述短语表示的是从现在起往前推算的一段时间,句中的动作是从过去某一时间或时刻开始持续到现在的。故例3应选D,例4应选C。

  ⑶现在完成时时常与"for +时间段或since +过去时间点"连用(含从句,从句过去时)。故例5应选C,例6应选C。

  ⑷现在完成时还与once(一次),twice(两次),three times(三次),several times(几次)等表示重复次数的词语连用。故例7应选B。

考点三:考查与一般过去时的区别

 例1. —These farmers have been to the United States .

   —Really ? When _____ there ?

  A. will they go B. did they go

  C. do they go D. have they gone

 例2.—______ you ___ your homework yet ?

   —Yes . I _____ it a moment ago .

  A. Did ; do ; finished B. Have ; done ; finished

  C. Have ; done ; have finished D. will ; do ; finish

  简析:现在完成时与一般过去时容易混淆,就是因为它们所表示的动作都发生在过去,但二者又有区别:一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动作,说话的侧重点在于陈述一件过去的事情,与现在没有关系;现在完成时表示与现在有关系的发生在过去的动作,它不与表示过去的时间状语(如yesterday , last week , a moment ago等)连用。故例1、2的正确答案皆为B。

考点四:考查非延续性动词的用法

 例1. His father ______ the Party since 1978 .

  A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in

 例2.—Do you know him well ?

  — Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago .

  A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made

 例3.—How long have you ____ here ?

  —About two months .

  A. been B. gone C. come D. arrived

 例4. Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes .

  A. has begun B. had begun C. has been on D. began

 例5. His uncle died two years ago .(改变句子,句意不变)

  His uncle has _______ _______ for two years

 例6. Her mother has been a Party member for three years .(同义句)

  Her mother _______ the Party three years ________ .

 例7. It _____ ten years since he left the army .

  A. is B. has C. will D. was

  简析:现在完成时中,非延续性动词不能与for和since引导的表示一段时间的状语连用,通常是用相应的延续性动词来代替。常用的非延续性动词及替代形式如下:

close—→be closed, put on→wear , open—→be open

get up—→be up, finish/end—→be over , lose—→be lost ,

marry—→be married(to), fall asleep/ go to sleep —→be asleep ( sleep ) ,

get to know—→ know   come/arrive—→be here/in ,

come/get back—→be back , go/leave-be away , become —→be ,

borrow —→keep , buy—→have , begin/start—→be on ,

die—→be dead , join—→be in/be a ember of... ,

catch a cold—→ have a cold等,

故例1、2、3、4的正确答案依次为:D、B、A、C。例5应填been dead 。其次,可以用相应的延续性动词的过去时表示,故例6应填joined;ago。再次,还可用"It is + 一段时间+since从句"来表示,故例7应选A。

考点五:考查词组have/has been in / to与have/has gone to的区别

 例1. Miss Green isn't in the office . she_______ to the library .

  A.has gone B. went C.will go D. has been

 例2. My parents ______ Shandong for ten years .

  A. have been in B. have been to

  C. have gone to D.have been

  简析:"have/has gone to + 地点"表示"某人去了某地(还未回来)",指主语所指的人不在这儿。"have/has been in + 地点"表示"在某地呆了多长时间",常与表示时间的状语连用。"have/has been to +地点"表示"曾经去过某地(但现在已不在那儿)。"故例1、2的正确答案皆为A。

要点提示:

  1. 结构:have/has+done 表示过去发生的某个动作对现在产生的影响,或过去发生的某个动作持续到现在。
  2. have/has been to… 与have/has gone to…的辨析

have/has been to… 表示"曾去过",说明有某种经历。

have/has gone to… 表示"已去某地(在途中或已到目的地)"。

e.g. She has been to Canada. 她去过加拿大。

She has gone to Canada. 她去加拿大了。

  1. 瞬间动词与延续性动词

    1)瞬间动词表示短暂。不能持续一段时间的动作,如:come, leave, begin, become, buy, receive, die, join, borrow, lend, go,等。

    2)持续性动词表示能持续一段时间的动作,如:work, stay, live, learn, read, write, wait 等

    3)瞬间动词用于完成时表示动作的完成。

    e.g. She has already bought a dictionary. 她已经买了一本字典。

    4)瞬间动词不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。

    e.g. She has left Shenyang.

    She has left Shengyang for a month..

    She has been away from Shenyang for a month..

    但是瞬间动词的否定结构可以与表示一段时间的状语连用,说明某动作不发生的状态可以持续一段时间

    e.g. She often goes on business. But she hasn't left Shenyang for a month./since a month ago.

过去进行时

过去进行时由was/were加现在分词构成,表示过去某个时刻或某一阶段正在进行的动作。常与表示过去某一时间的状语或when引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语从句连用。如:

What were you doing at this time yesterday?

My mother was cooking when I got home. 

过去将来时

过去将来时由should/would加动词原形或was/were going to加动词原形构成,表示

从过去某时看来将要发生的事情,常用在宾语从句中。如:

I didn't know when he would come back. 

过去完成时

过去完成时由had加过去分词构成,表示过去某一动作或时间以前已发生或完成的动作,也可指从过去某时开始到过去另一时为止的动作或状态,即"过去的过去"。常用的时间状语有:a. by last month, by the end of last term等;b. before he came here, when I got there等。如:

By the end of last term they had learned about twenty English songs.

The film had already begun when we got there.

注意:before与ago的用法有区别。before表示"距过去某时…以前",即过去的过去,用于过去完成时;ago表示"距今…以前",即从现在起的过去,用于一般过去时。

第二节 实战演练

一、例题选讲

例1

Look, she (have) a bunch of flowers in her hand.

 

答案:

has 

提示:

尽管句中有look,但在英语中表示"有",不能用进行时态,本句意思指"她手中有一束花"。

例2

John (make) much progress in his lessons since last term. He (study) harder later on.

 

答案:

has made, will/is going to study 

提示:

第一句中,since last term暗示了谓语动词要用现在完成时态。说明从上学期以来取得了很大进步,第二句中的later on要注意用一般将来时。

例3

Cherry arrived at school after the class (begin) yesterday.

 

答案:

had begun 

提示:

begin虽然也能作及物动词,但在表示某事开始时,一般以不及物动词出现,不用被动结构。

例4

If it (not rain) tomorrow, we (go) to the park.

 

答案:

doesn't rain, will go

提示:

这是条件状语从句,主句是将来时,其时间或条件状语从句应用一般现在时。

例5

Great changes (take) place in Shanghai in the past ten years.

 

答案:

have taken place 

提示:

In the past ten years会造成过去时间感觉,但其意思是近十年中,与现在有关,要用现在完成时

例6

It is said that they (hold) an English evening next week.

 

答案:

will hold 

提示:

主句It is said是现在时时态,从句要用将来时,不能用过去将来时。

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